Hasty withdrawal of US from Afghanistan in August, 2021 left many questions like what will be the future of Afghanistan, who will run the state of affairs, what will be the economic conditions of the country and how the security of masses will be ensured? More were speculations and concerns rather than finding solution of the challenges. Taliban came into power and are running the state of affairs, amid international pressures, humanitarian crisis and tackling biggest menace of terrorism. Afghanistan which was already a theatre of war for many non-state actors have now found it more impulsive to carry out their nefarious acts. Recent violent incidents clearly show how Afghan soil is again used by such elements to carry out their terror agenda. The striking increase in attacks in Afghanistan highlights the growing security tasks to the rulers of Afghanistan and of course Pakistan being the neighbouring country with shared borders is equally concern as the peace in Afghanistan is linked with peace in Pakistan. An ISIL (ISIS) affiliate known as the Islamic State in Khorasan Province, which claimed the recent wave of attacks in Afghanistan and Pakistan, is appearing as headstrong assignment. Apart from IS, Afghanistan has to deal with TTP, ETIM, IMU and many other splinter groups who are a constant threat to the country’s security. It appears that besides multitude of gigantic challenges for Taliban, growing security threat is gaining the precedence. Facts suggest that ISIL commenced its activities in Afghanistan in year 2013 which gained significant momentum in year 2016. Their activities were somehow under a check during the US presence but were let loose post US pull out. The situation has posed a considerable challenge to Taliban regime and has given birth to a national resistance movement against Taliban government over the security grievances which may gain further momentum if the situation is not arrested on time. There could be multiple factors contributing to the surge in terrorist activities in Afghanistan. Over the period of time we have witnessed that most of the fighting in Afghanistan happens in spring season and this is the first spring season after Taliban’s takeover of Kabul. In recent past, TTP has launched its first ever spring offensive Al-Badr, which has claimed nearly 20 terrorist attacks targeting Pakistani troops. In the last few days, incidents along Pak-Afghan Border have significantly increased, wherein, Pakistani security forces are being targeted from across the border. Pakistan has repeatedly requested Afghan Government in last few months to secure Pak-Afghan border region where terrorists are using Afghan soil with impunity to carry out activities inside Pakistan. It is pertinent to mention that Pakistan and Afghanistan have been engaged for past several months through institutional channels for effective coordination and security along their shared border. Unfortunately, elements of banned terrorist groups in the border region, including TTP, have continued to attack Pakistan’s border security posts, resulting into martyrdom of several Pakistani troops. It was on 30th March, 2022 when six soldiers’ embraced martyrdom and three terrorist were killed in Tank district of KP. On the same day, TTP launched its Spring Offensive as per the press release of Military Council of TTP Shura, naming it Operation Al-Badr. Mohammad Khorasani, spokesperson for TTP militant group said in a statement that, “This operation will include martyrdom [suicide] operations, ambush attacks, mine operations, counter-attacks, target attacks, laser and sniper operations.” On 12th of April, there was an intense exchange of exchange of fire with terrorists in North Waziristan, where two personnel embraced martyrdom while fighting valiantly. On 14 April 2022 as well, 7 Pakistan Army Soldiers were martyred in North Waziristan District by terrorists operating from Afghanistan. DG ISPR in a press release mentioned that 105 officers and soldiers had embraced martyrdom in the first three months of this year, while 128 militants had been killed and 270 arrested. The recent wave of attacks in Pakistani territory clearly suggests that the safe havens of TTP in Afghanistan are facilitating them in their deadly attacks in Pakistan and it is responsibility of the IEA to take action against the TTP and IS (KP). It also shows that TTP is acting as spoiler denting Af-Pak relations and IEA must try to adhere to Doha agreement, in which Afghan Taliban committed that their soil will not be used against any other country. There are multitude problems which have become enablers of terrorism in Afghanistan and to curb this surge, there is a need to adopt holistic approach for tackling these issues in political, economic and security domains. Pakistan while condemning attacks said that it is detrimental to our efforts of maintaining peace and stability along Pak-Afghan Border and Pakistan requests the sovereign Government of Afghanistan to secure Pak- Afghan Border region and take stern actions against the individuals involved in such terrorist activities. Pakistan strongly condemned heinous attacks in Afghanistan which included bomb blasts at mosques in Mazar-e-Sharif, IED blasts in Kabul, Jalalabad, Kunduz and other places. Pakistan being neighbour has many stakes in a peaceful Afghanistan. There is always a propensity of violence in Afghanistan crossing the border into Pakistan and disturb internal situation here. With the power vacuum prevalent in Afghanistan, TTP has regained strength and has up scaled its activities inside Pakistan in recent months. Although Pakistan is fencing border between Pakistan and Afghanistan yet the Taliban regime is not very much in consort with Pakistan on the subject due to Durand Line issue. Resultantly, TTP elements are emboldened to cross over to Pakistan and attack Pakistani security forces. Pakistan has been asking Afghan government to take appropriate measures in this regard and has also offered to work closely with the Afghan government to check such incidents. Reaffirming respect for Afghanistan’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, Pakistan will continue to work closely with the Afghan government to strengthen bilateral relations in all domains. The writer is a consultant at Pak-Afghan Youth Forum and also works for the Institute of Regional Studies.