A groundbreaking experiment involving a pig-to-human kidney transplant has been completed by US surgeons, setting a new record with the kidney functioning inside the recipient for a remarkable 61 days. The historic achievement promises a brighter future for countless people who are waiting for life-saving organ transplants. Dr. Robert Montgomery of NYU Langone Health led the extraordinary experiment, which pushed the boundaries of scientific understanding. The pig kidney, which had been genetically modified to be more compatible with humans, worked for two months inside the brain-dead patient, Maurice “Mo” Miller. While this feat was achieved with a deceased recipient, it represents an important step towards testing pig kidneys in living patients. Dr. Montgomery, who had a heart transplant himself, thinks that human-to-animal organ transplants are the answer to the country’s severe organ shortage. The majority of those on the nation’s waiting list for organ transplants—more than 100,000 people—need kidneys. While they wait for suitable donors, many patients pass away. Attempts at xenotransplantation were met with insurmountable difficulties for many years because the immune system of humans quickly rejected foreign animal tissue. Recent developments, however, involve genetically altering pigs so that their organs resemble those of humans. Previous attempts, which produced transient effects in dead bodies, were unsuccessful in addressing the longer-term rejection process, which typically takes a month to develop. By illuminating the subtle signs of rejection and possible treatments, the experiment advances our understanding of xenotransplants. It also addressed significant concerns raised by the FDA about the performance of pig organs in comparison to those of humans. After Maurice Miller was pronounced brain-dead due to cancer, his sister Mary Miller-Duffy bravely decided to donate her brother’s body for this ground-breaking experiment. Her deed of kindness improved critical research and improved the lives of those waiting for kidney transplants. Lessons learned from this ground-breaking pig kidney transplant hold great promise as researchers continue to study xenotransplantation. Even though difficulties still exist, this achievement offers hope for the future and gives disgruntled patients on organ transplant waiting lists a glimmer of hope. Dr. Montgomery stated “We need to do something about it.” The ground-breaking study moves us a step closer to finding that something.