The Indian security and foreign policy orientation has transformed under the Modi administration. Narendra Modi became Prime Minister of India in 2014, after a landslide victory of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Many Indian analysts called it the making of a third “epoch” in the history of India. Modi’s accession to power has renewed the focus on foreign relations and the security policy of India. The transformation in the military doctrine of India is an explicit facet of this emergent phenomenon. Development of effective military capabilities and viable power projection in the Indo-pacific and adjacent region is deemed essential to achieve a greater power status for India. This ambition has been reinforced by the Indian joint armed forces doctrine, 2017. The security and foreign policy orientation under Modi’s administration has transformed India’s legacy. The Modi government skipped the non-alignment summit for the first time in the history of India. However, India’s geography is still one of the main determinants of security plans. Pakistan and China constitute as primary external threats while internal separatist movements are also a cause for concern. India skillfully exploited the post 9/11 international environment, claiming that internal separatist movements are fueled by external powers especially the Kashmiri freedom movement. The state narrative that linked these movements with acts of terrorism, has legitimized violence especially in Jammu and Kashmir. Furthermore, the Modi administration has employed draconian military laws in Kashmir and use of pellets to crush the movement, but resistance against the Indian Army only increased after their use of force against civilians. India has accused Pakistan for cross border movement of militants and threatened Pakistan as well. However, these claims were rejected by Pakistan. India also cancelled the foreign bilateral talks in 2014, which increased tension on the line of control. Also there has been an increase in armed skirmishes since 2014, across Pakistan’s borders, to discourage neighbouring states from joining SAARC the Islamabad summit in 2016, which in turn resulted in its postponement. Indian joint armed forces doctrine of 2017, officially endorsed surgical strikes as a military strategy. This doctrine has incorporated destruction and disruption and masked it as a part of important military operations. It emphasized inter-operability and inter-connectivity, as main driving features of the joint operations carried out by conventional and unconventional forces of India. The doctrine cites destruction as the complete annihilation of an enemy in warfare while disruption accounts for the controlled use of force as a punitive measure. The doctrine cites that, “Disruption is a lower form of armed conflict designed to shatter the cohesion of an adversary’s military force to prevent it from functioning effectively in combat. It may be achieved by destroying elements essential for cohesion, such as the command and control (C2) systems. It may also be achieved by degrading the morale of the enemy or disrupting the decision making ability of the adversary without use of force.” A military doctrine like this, reflects the prevailing strategic thinking among the political élite and the security establishments of India. India cancelled the foreign bilateral talks in 2014, which increased tension on the line of control. Also there has been an increase in armed skirmishes since 2014, across Pakistan’s borders Such kind of warfare is based on unconventional means and fought in a non-traditional manner which is known as hybrid warfare. Such kind of warfare resonates with the Kautilya’s notion of silent war. It includes sedition, propaganda and psychological damage to weaken the enemy, and then a military offensive is initiated to destroy the enemy’s command and control system. India has significantly modernised its defense forces in order to carry out such operations in the future under an integrated command system which is known as network-centric warfare or network-centric operations. This doctrine has significantly transformed strategic thought and the nuclear doctrine of India. It also calls into question the ‘not to first use nuclear weapons’, stance of India. The shift in India’s stance can be clarified by Ajit Doval’s remarks, he said on October 2014, that credible deterrence is “an effective deterrence capability which is credible?”. Thus, it aims to limit Pakistan’s first strike options and create more space for India to maneuver against Pakistan and China. Indian military’s effort to modernise strategies to protect its power beyond national borders is creating instability in the region. It has initiated a new tide of the arms race in South Asia. India’s over-ambitious approach can jeopardize peace in the region. Pakistan has responded to the situation by incorporating a tactical nuclear weapon defense system, under the guideline of the full spectrum deterrence doctrine to safeguards its interests. The author holds an M Phil in international Relations from Quaid-i-Azam University. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org Published in Daily Times, September 21st 2018.