In view of predominantly rural character of population, the task of rural development assumes vital significance in Pakistan’s national Socio-economic Development effort. It involves mobilization of resources with a view to eradicating rural poverty improving the quality of life in rural areas. The Objectives under the new strategy for rural development includes: (1) Increased Productivity; (2) equitable distribution of wealth and equal opportunities; (3) Improving skills and employment opportunities; and (4) Efficient and equitable management of human, material and environmental resources. The shift in plan objective since after the fourth 5-year plan speaks for Government’s concern for rural development. It implies the introduction of systematic and deliberate change in rural Social-Structure; rural social institutions; rural values, attitudes and beliefs; and motivational forces related to behavior of rural population. Working with people and projects in rural areas requires deep understanding of the people, their problems, their hopes and aspirations, their fears, and Strengths and weaknesses. Besides methodology, knowledge, skills, proper aptitude and attitude, the planners and administrators entrusted with the rural development work have to have what C. Wright Mills, ‘Sociological Imagination’- that is, the capacity and ability for analysis and diagnostics Judgment and vision and true understanding to see things in their proper perspective and in relation to another. ‘Social Imagination’ is possible to develop through understanding of various concepts, techniques, strategies, propositions, and hypothesis developed by Social Scientists and others. Since Public Functionaries are assigned major responsibility in the process of rural development, they have to be well equipped for the multiple roles they are supposed to play – as administrators, educators, guides, motivators, and as change agents. These functionaries could prove more productive and efficient if they had an orientation in management development and administration, and fuller appreciations of problems and prospects in public administration. Financially viable and relatively autonomous local government institutions and mass organizations for rural development are vital formulation and implementation of development programmers for their jurisdiction and to contribute to the formulation of national policies Dealing with colleague, Public representatives, local Leaders, interest groups, Voluntary organizations and people in general makes it necessary for public functionaries to acquaint themselves with the latest developments in their field of activity, and acquire skills and techniques to overcome difficulties they are confronted with in their communication and inter-action. Exposure to modern management concepts and ideas could help provide proper motivation for desired behavior and consequently achievement of desired objectives or targets with efficiency and economy. In his observations on the “ the human side of enterprise”, Douglas M. McGreger, refers to the hierarchy of human needs in the context of Abraham Maslow’s work ‘Physiological and safety needs’ are basic needs in the hierarchy of needs, followed by ‘social needs’ Ego Needs, Self actualization need etc. Once the basic needs are satisfied one moves on to higher needs as motivator of behavior. A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior. McGregor discussed conventional approach of management which he calls ‘Theory X’ Versus Human Motivational based ‘Theory Y’ which relies on self control and self direction. Management is a process of creating opportunities, releasing potential, removing obstacles, encouraging growth and providing guidance. It is what Peter Drucker has called “Management by objectives (MBO)” in contrast to management by control. Some innovative ideas which are consistent with ‘Theory Y’ and are applied with success are: (1) Decentralization and delegation, (2) Job enlargement, (3) Participation and consultative management, (4) Performance appraisal. Considering the extent to which participation of the government is needed in a big way, the preparedness of government functionaries, directly or indirectly concerned with the rural development, is essential to meet the challenge. Assessment of training needs, identification of areas to be emphasized in training, and evolving strategies and techniques and methodology of training assumes increased importance. Besides, there is the important issue related to the availability of right kind of trainers, and problems and difficulties faced by training institutions. Institutes for rural development training and management training and management development training need be given due to recognition and importance. These institutions should not be turned into dumping ground for the undesirable and those for seeking refuge. Instead they should be put most effective use for the training of officials as well as the public representatives, Local leaders, and focused groups – women, Youth, Artisans, technicians, Vocational Training and adoption of appropriate technology. Financially viable and relatively autonomous local government institutions and mass organizations for rural development are vital formulation and implementation of development programmers for their jurisdiction and to contribute to the formulation of national policies. Success or failure of such institutions and organizations has to carefully evaluated. We have rather failed to learn from our past experience. There has been no consistency and continuity of Programmes. We discarded development programmes (Such as V-AID, Rural Works programme Basic Democracies, peoples’ works programme, integrated rural development programme, etc.) without weighing their merits and de-merits. Several past programmes had identified psychological, Cultural, social, educational, economic, and political factors related to the poverty of the overwhelming majority of the rural population. Experience of the past programmes emphasised the need for breaking the economic and beaurcratic barriers to the free operations of local government, also Suggested was improvement in attitude of government functionaries towards people and their problems. Observations on current programmes and projects are not any different, the same kind of problems still exist. The same kind of charge is still desired. The problem of lack of co-ordination in rural uplift programmes is still there, literacy, poverty, and health problems continue to offer a hindrance to the desirable success. The new rural programme came into existence after the IRDP and PWP merged together under the fifth five year plan (1978-83). It needs be given a fair trial especially when it enjoys the supports of 3733 popularly elected rural councils and 45216 rural councilors throughout the country. The sixth Five Year Plan (1983-88) deals with the question of rural development more positively and seriously. The perspective of attitudes, social responsibility and integrated approach has moved the planners to act with greater vision. They have realized that the initial task is to create proper incentives to counter the lure of the city life. It is not a new idea but better late than never. ‘It is on the success of moving educated personnel to the rural areas that the battle for rural development would be won’ the plan seeks to provide the initial thrust towards this goal. In addition to intensifying the agricultural development programmes, which continue to enjoy top priority, the sixth five year plan with an outlay of 399 billion rupee emphasises the importance of large scale expansion of physical and social infrastructure to the village scene. As part of the change in the physical environment it includes rural roads, rural water supply and village electrification. As the agents of social change it includes primary education and primary health care. The plan emphasises the development if basic-and-felt-needs projects at the local level, institutionalizing local development through the concept of ‘District plans, prepared in consultation with the people and officials concerned. It therefore stresses the need for strengthening the development role and financial viability of the local councils to facilitate more efficient execution of development projects. The sixth five years plan further stresses the role of planning and rural Development Ministries regarding streamlining of district plans, financial support, and implementation. According to a report submitted to the Federal Council, 93 Percent of the targets fixed for the first year of the sixth five years plan (1983-88) were achieved. During the second year of the plan period 900,000 additional jobs would be created , family income will increase to Rs. 3,300.00, 2400 more villages would be electrified, 4200,000 more persons will have been drinking water , all children will be immunized, and education facilities will be provided for 3800,000 more children. This gives us an idea of the pace development. Contrary to the concern expressed by population experts and planners regarding the rapid rate of increase in population and its Socio-economic implication, there is another point of view. It says the world has enough natural resources to support a growing population and rising living standards. This is the conclusion of a United Nations team. Headed by the Nobel Prize winning Economist, Wassily Leontief, Who spent three years in the project. Based on this and other finding on the subject of development it is suggested that what many countries need most in order to narrow the rich-poor gap are integral changes involving their agricultural, land reclamation, irrigation, credit, investment and other policies. Investment from abroad, while important, is secondary, the report concludes, to the efforts of the developing countries themselves, “People in developing countries seek assistance, but on the basis of mutual respect; “they want to have friends not masters”. Sadly our resolve to return to villages was never taken seriously. We would have avoided serious crises, criminality and multiple causes of corruption which came to our share of destiny in the shape of fast developing urbanization. Model villages could have saved our agricultural development. It could have prevented Rural-urban Migration and thus multiple Socio-economic problems including health, housing, education, work and much more. Model villages would have helped build a stable and just society. Urbanization is directly related to corrupt development institutions and law and order agencies. Pakistan needs good politics and honest leadership to resolve conflicts. The writer is former Director, National Institute of Public Administration (NIPA) Government of Pakistan, a public policy expert, political analyst and an established author.