In their research titled “Nuclear Security Briefing Book”, Wyn Bowen and Matthew Cottee state that nuclear terrorism involves the acquisition and detonation of an intact nuclear weapon from any state arsenal. The world has not experienced any act of nuclear terrorism yet, but it is not for a lack of trying. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has observed many incidents of lost, theft and unauthorized control of nuclear material. The increased use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes has intensified the threat that terrorist can target these places for acquiring nuclear materials. They cannot build a nuclear weapon because production would require a technological infrastructure. However, even if they struggle yo make an actual nuclear bomb; they can build a dirty bomb instead. A dirty bomb is not like a nuclear bomb. A nuclear bomb spreads radiation over hundreds of square miles, while a dirty bomb causes destruction in a small area alone. While conventional bombs might be a better option when loss of life is concerned, dirty bombs do have the advantage of creating psychological terror. At the moment, there is no viable security system for the prevention of nuclear terrorism. The UN Security Council and the IAEA did introduce multilateral nuclear security initiatives and Pakistan also actively contributed in all international nuclear security efforts. An example of this can be seen when former US president Barak Obama introduced the Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) in 2009 to mitigate the threat of nuclear terrorism by securing nuclear materials throughout the world within four years. Pakistan welcomed this initiative and fulfilled its commitments to the cause. They established a Centre of Excellence (COEs) on nuclear security while the country is also a signatory of the UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1540 to whom they submit regular reports explaining the various measures being taken for radiological security and control of sensitive nuclear materials. Pakistan established a Centre of Excellence on nuclear security, while the country is also a signatory of the UN Security Council Resolution-1540 to whom they submit regular reports explaining the various measures being taken for the security of sensitive nuclear materials. Pakistan went on to ratify the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) in 2016 and is also a member of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT). It can be rightly inferred that Pakistan is not only contributing to all international nuclear security instruments, but has also taken multiple effective measures at the national level. Pakistan created the National Command Authority (NCA) to manage and safeguard nuclear assets and related infrastructures. The Strategic Plan Division (SPD) is also playing a very important role in managing Pakistan’s nuclear assets, along with the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) which was established in 2001. Later in 2014, the National Institute of Safety and Security (NISAS) was created that works under the jurisdiction of the PNRA. Pakistan has also adopted the Export Control Act to strengthen its nuclear exports and the SPD has formulated a standard functioning procedure to regulate the conduct of strategic organizations as well. In his research “Thinking about Pakistan’s Nuclear Security in Peacetime”, Christopher Clary points out that Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal is equipped with Permissive Action Links (PALs) for increasing their security, while, according to Pakistan’s former nuclear scientist Samar Mubarakmand, every Pakistani nuclear arsenal is now fitted with a code-lock device. Nonetheless, nuclear terrorism is a global concern as terrorist organizations can target civilian nuclear facilities in order to steal nuclear material, and even more stringent nuclear security systems are required to eradicate this threat. Western media and international commentators often propagate that Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal might fall in to the wrong hands, but they do not highlight the efforts the country has made in ensuring the safety of its nuclear weapons and material. It is time Pakistan is lauded for its commendable efforts to ensure nuclear security. The writer is a Research Associate at Strategic Vision Institute Islamabad. She can be contacted firstname.lastname@example.org Published in Daily Times, August 18th 2018.