Located in South Asia, Pakistan is the world’s 5th most populous country, with a population of almost 229 million. As per WHO, the current birth rate for Pakistan in 2022 is 26.538 births per 1,000 people. New-borns with heart, lung or any respiratory problems may need to breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides the new-born patients with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a lifesaving, essential medicine that is important for the treatment of many common childhood conditions. But at the same time, breathing too much oxygen can damage the lung. For patients who are born very prematurely, too much oxygen in the blood may also lead to problems in the brain and eye. Patients with certain heart conditions may also need lower levels of oxygen in the blood. To address these concerns and instructional gaps in Pakistan, Health Services Academy (HSA), in collaboration with Pakistan Paediatrics Association (PPA) and UNICEF, held a National Consultative Dialogue on Draft National Oxygen Therapy Guidelines for Children on Sunday in Islamabad. The dialogue was attended by leading Paediatricians of Pakistan representing all the provinces and Gilgit Baltistan. Vice Chancellor Prof Dr Shahzad Ali Khan provided the opening remarks followed by an address of Prof Dr Maj Gen Salman Ali HI(M). Subsequently, four different groups were formed to indulge in national dialogue on how the guidelines would be best suited in Pakistan.