Peak water is a concept that underlines the growing constraints on the availability, quality, and use of freshwater resources Water covers 70% of the Earth’s surface. Only 3% is fresh– 70% of that 3% freshwater is snow and ice, 30% is groundwater. Salt water cannot be used for drinking, food, or irrigation More than two billion people lack access to clean and safe drinking water, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). 3.6 billion people worldwide (nearly half the global population) are already living in potential water-scarce areas at least one month per year and this could increase to 4.8-5.7 billion in 2050 (UNESCO, 2018) physical (absolute) water scarcity and economic water scarcity, where physical water scarcity is a result of inadequate natural water resources to supply a region’s demand, and economic water scarcity is a result of poor management of the sufficient available water resources. UNDP found that economic scarcity is more prevalent. The IPCC explains, the impacts of climate change on water availability and quality vary across the world regions. Contaminated drinking-water is estimated to cause more than 500 000 diarrhoeal deaths each year. Contaminated water can transmit diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid and polio. With the existing climate change scenario, by 2030, water scarcity in some arid and semi-arid places will displace between 24 million and 700 million people. (UNCCD). The World Resources Institute, a think-tank, ranked 167 countries, and found that 33 face extremely high water stress by 2040 (see map). Globally, 70% of Freshwater is Used for Agriculture. In most regions of the world, over 70 percent of freshwater is used for agriculture. By 2050, feeding a planet of 9 billion people will require an estimated 50 percent increase in agricultural production There were 1831 water conflicts over transboundary basins from 1950-2000. There are many sources of fresh water on earth. Sources of fresh water are ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, and even underground water called groundwater. From a conservation standpoint, keeping the piping system in good repair is important. A leak of one drop per second wastes over 113 gallons of water per month. Irrigation is by far the most common purpose of dams. Among the single purpose dams, 48 % are for irrigation, 17% for hydropower (production of electricity), 13% for water supply, 10% for flood control, 5% for recreation and less than 1% for navigation and fish farming. Glaciers continue to shrink worldwide, affecting villages and towns downstream. Increased variability in precipitation and more extreme weather events caused by climate change can lead to longer periods of droughts and floods, which directly affects availability and dependency on groundwater. With the existing climate change scenario, by 2030, water scarcity in some arid and semi-arid places will displace between 24 million and 700 million people. (UNCCD).