Amal e Saleh is one of the most significant books on Shah Jahan’s era. Its author, Mullah Muhammad Saleh Kamboh, is buried in a mausoleum on Empress Road in Lahore. Before we discuss the history of his mausoleum, let’s take a look at his life. Mullah Muhammad Saleh Kamboh and Inayat Ullah Kamboh, were among the most scholarly and learned people of the Shah Jahan era. Inayatullah Kamboh also served as munshi (writer) at the Mughal court. Historians vary in their description of their relationship with each other. Some maintain that Mullah Saleh was married to the daughter of Inayat Ullah while some are of the opinion that they were brothers-in-law, their wives being sisters. Still others maintain that they were brothers. Whatever the nature of the relationship, they were quite close. Mullah Muhammad Saleh got access to the Mughal court through Inayatullah. Inayatullah also taught him the art of munshi giri. Mullah Saleh and Inayat Ullah were authors of several significant books. Inayatullah Kamboh wrote Tareekh e Dilkusha, Bahar e Danish, and Ashraf ul Sahaif. Mullah Muhammad Saleh Kamboh’s Amal e Saleh, also known as Shah Jahan Nama has been translated into many languages. It is a detailed account of the life of Shah Jahan from his childhood to his demise. The book is one of the most important original sources of events during Shah Jahan’s reign. It also includes information on Shah Jahan’s predecessors (Akbar and Jahangir) and a collection of the biographies of the Sufis and other notable contemporaries of Shah Jahan. Sayed Muhammad Latif writes: “The work is in excellent Persian style, and in good taste, and is proof of the great literary attainments of the author and his skill as a writer of Persian poetry and prose”. The Lahore Number of Naqoosh mentions ShahJahan Nama thus: ‘In Persian prose, the book holds the position of a masterpiece… The life events of many personalities of that era have been included in this [book] that are not contained in other accounts. As an important source of the history of Shah Jahan era, this book can never be considered ordinary or ignored. This book was published by Asiatic Society Bengal. Now Anjuman Taraqi e Adab Lahore has also published this book’. One of the highlights of the Shah Jahan era is its mgnificent architecture. Mullah Saleh has also described it. His description of the Taj Mahal is so detailed that one can feel the majesty and grandeur of the building. From the structure of the mausoleum to the landscaping of the surrounding gardens and from the style of calligraphy to the elegance of the fountains; every aspect is covered in his account. Shah Jahan Nama also has an in-depth account of Prince Dara Shikoh’s bid for the throne. He was the eldest born of Shah Jahan and the heir apparent. The book follows his efforts to win the throne, his fights and flights, his defeat and capture and finally his brutal execution on the orders of Aurangzeb. The author has penned a heart rending description of Shah Jahan’s anguish on learning of the execution of Dara Shikoh. Owing to his knowledge and aptitude, Mulla Saleh was appointed the Dewan (minister) of Lahore. His stature as a writer and a scholar is unquestioned. In addition to Shah Jahan Nama he penned numerous noteworthy books. About these, Naqoosh says: ‘Bahar e Sukhan is another inimitable book by Mullah Muhammad Saleh. Maulana Shibli has called it Baharistan e Sukhan, but other accounts call it Bahar e Sukhan. It is considered one of the best specimens of Mullah Saleh’s Persian prose. Bahar e Sukhan consists of four parts. The first part has letters of Sultans and nobles. The second part contains personal letters of the scribe. The third part puts in picture the buildings of Shah Jahan Abad, Agra and Lahore in ornate and sophisticated language. In the fourth part reviews of the publications of that time, are included. The third and the fourth parts are especially important’. The third part describes architecture and the related terms of this art. This was an age of exceptional Bronze Work. Specimens of this craft that we find in this period can’t be found in other eras. Mullah Saleh compiled quite useful information about this art but few have taken appropriate advantage of this treasure trove of information. The fourth part gives an insight about several authors who are not mentioned elsewhere as they were his relatives or acquaintances. When we assemble the history of literature of that era, his book cannot be ignored. It must be considered as an important source of information. Empress Road is one of the busiest roads in Lahore. Thousands tread this road daily. A dominant majority of the commuters does not know that the Church near the Railway Headquarters is in fact the resting place of two outstanding people of their time Mullah Saleh was a multi talented person. Some historians say that he was a great calligrapher and that he adorned some of the buildings with his own calligraphy but these accounts need to be further authenticated. In addition to being a writer and a historian he also got many buildings constructed. He built an exquisite mosque inside Mochi Gate, which is considered the second most important mosque after Masjid Wazeer Khan, as far as Kashi Kari (glazed tile work) is concerned. A couplet on the main gateway of the mosque says: The builder of this beautiful mosque is Muhammad Saleh: Mulla Saleh also supervised the construction of the tomb of Inayat Ullah Kamboh. Later, when he passed away, he, too, was buried in the same tomb. Noor Ahmed Chishti puts 1075 AH as his year of demise, Kanhaeya Lal Hindi says its 1080 AH and Sayed Latif recognizes 1085 AH as the year of his passing away. Naqoosh has debated this issue at length and determined that he passed away some time after 1120 AH. The Mausoleum: The mausoleum holds the graves of Mullah Muhammad Saleh Kamboh, Inayat Ullah Kamboh and some of his other family members. Before partition this building was known as Gunbad Kambohan. Authentic historians have given the location of Mullah Saleh’s tomb as next to the Khanqah (monastery) Ali Rangraiz. Both these buildings are situated on Empress Road near the Railway Headquarters. Maulvi Noor Ahmed Chishti writes: “Towards the north of the shrine of Hazrat Ali Rangrez, on a small hillock nearby, lies the famous Gunbad Kambohan. It is octagonal and lime is used as mortar in its construction. Now it appears black. The exterior is framed by four main arches and now in these arches, there are two doors, one on top of the other. To the south there is a stairway that leads upwards. Adjacent to it, there is an elliptical dome. Who knows how many graves were there. In Seymour’s times the dome was used as kitchen. Now it is a carriage lounge.” Kanhaeya Laal Hindi writes: “In this tomb the graves of both were prepared and a magnificent mausoleum was built. In the Sikh era, the stone graves were demolished. The tomb, made of bricks, remained. It was used to store gunpowder etc. During British rule, Mr Seymour Sahib Bahadur used it as his residence. Its form is octagonal. On the four sides, there are four large arches towards the exterior. To the south there is a flight of steps leading upwards. Closer to this dome there is another oblong dome that housed the graves of the offspring of both. It is now used as kitchen. The third is used as carriage house.” Mumtaz Liaqat, who translated Shah Jahan Nama into Urdu, writes in the preface: “After his death, Mullah Muhammad Saleh was buried in his ancestral mausoleum, by the side of Sheikh Inayat Ullah. This tomb is situated on the Empress Road, adjacent to new Railway offices and is called Gunbad Kambohan. Fashioned out of red stone this building is octagonal. In the Sikh era, the Sikhs demolished both graves and stripped them of their stone. The tomb, however, survived the attack. During Ranjeet Singh’s period, it was turned into a gunpowder magazine. In British times, this tomb became a residence and so it came to pass that for a long period of time it came to be known as Seymour Sahib Ki Kothi, whose domes were used as kitchen and carriage house. Now two additional rooms have been added and it has been used as a church. It is called Saint Andrew’s Church.” The calendar published by Pakistan Railways contains a picture of this tomb and the accompanying history of the place, puts the site of the tomb adjacent to the Railway Headquarters. Prof Aslam in his book Khuftagan e Khaak e Lahore has given a detailed account about this matter. He writes: On Sharay Abdul Hameed Bin Yadeen (previously Empress Road), within the perimeter of the Saint Andrews Church, before the Railway Headquarters a dome can be seen. Its structural design depicts the architecture of the Shah Jahan era. At present this dome is part of the church. Beneath this dome the royal historian of Shah Jahan and the author of Shah Jahan Nama commonly known as Amal e Saleh, Muhammad Saleh Kamboh and his nephew Inayat Ullah Kamboh, author of Bahar e Danish, were resting in peace. Sikhs started using this dome as gunpowder magazine during their reign. Kanhaeya Laal, the author of Tareekh e Lahore writes that in the Sikh period the place was used to store gunpowder. During the initial time of British rule, Mr Seymour resided here and made the room, which housed the graves of Muhammad Saleh Kamboh and his family members, his kitchen. Noor Ahmed Chishti also saw the British living in this dome. After the construction of church, the priest started living here. A number of appeals were made to the authorities, after Pakistan came into being, for retrieval of this dome but they fell on deaf ears. According to a narrative, the British removed the coffins of Muhammad Saleh and Inayat Ul Lah and buried them in the shrine of Hazrat Ali Rangrez, before turning it into a residence. The mosque constructed by Muhammad Saleh Kamboh is still standing in the Mochi Gate.” Presently, this mausoleum can be accessed from Railway Road. Moving towards the Haji Camp from the railway station, there is a small flea market on the right side of the road. The Haji camp is right across the road. At the time of partition this building was known as Majithia Hostel. Syed Abid Ali Abid, the great poet and thinker, also used to live in this building. In the ’70s, after Dyal Singh College, this place was also used as the hostel of the Allama Iqbal Medical College. A little farther down the road, towards left, lies the Church. Right across the road there is the historical building of Don Bosco School. The police lines are also located here. A few years back a terror attack took place here. Following which the nearby flea market was closed down but now it’s open for business. This also raises a question about the presence of sensitive buildings in densely populated urban areas. They not only increase the risk for the general population but also increase the responsibility of the government regarding the protection of life and property of the people. The reader might question the need for such lengthy and detailed references about the location of Gunbad Kambohan. This description is given for wo reasons. Firstly, the city of Lahore is changing right before our very eyes. The landmarks of yesteryears are now but a memory and what exists today will be covered by the sands of time. This is an effort to document the landmarks that exist today. Secondly and more importantly, presently this mausoleum is being used as a school that is being run by the Christian community. The larger dome is used as the office space and the smaller domes house classrooms. General public does not have any access to this monument. The school and the Church administration maintain that they have Court’s decree that establishes the presence of Mullah Muhammad Saleh Kamboh’s tomb in Delhi hence this isn’t the burial place of the Kambohs. A very interesting fact is documented by Lucy Peck in her book, Lahore; The Architectural Heritage, ‘The tomb of Muhammad Saleh Kamboh and his brother, both literary courtiers of Shah Jahan, was converted into a private residence and then, with the addition of side rooms, became an Anglican church serving the railway community. This role was taken over by a purpose built building of considerable architectural inventiveness: the tower, which projects forward from the plain gabled west end, has an almost arts and crafts top and the veranda that wraps around the entire nave is of great charm, with its Palladian arches and side openings. The church was taken over by the Presbyterians, who used it till 1986, after which it became a school’. This excerpt beautifully explains the whole conversion process of the resting place of the Kambohs into a school. Even if the argument of the school authorities regarding the court decree is accepted as valid, the building could not have been constructed by the British. The architecture is distinctly Mughal. The three domes are still standing as firmly and majestically as the day they were constructed. Empress Road is one of the busiest roads in Lahore. Thousands tread this road daily. A dominant majority of these commuters does not know that the Church near the Railway Headquarters is in fact the resting place of two outstanding people of their time. The Archaeology Department has never tried to reclaim this monument to restore the historical heritage. It’s high time that the concerned authorities take concrete steps to preserve this legacy.