The concept of dietary intake of fats and oils has undergone major changes over the past few years. Lately, it has been observed that the consumption of partially hydrogenated trans-vegetable oils is on the increase while there is a decrease in the intake of lauric acid-containing oils. Published research has indicated an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) to high levels of serum cholesterol, which is a result of increased dietary intake of saturated fats. Most developing countries, considering the cost and health concerns, are trying to replace animal fats with vegetable oils. One of the most popular replacements is Palm Oil, which has not only a saturated fatty acids content of 50 per cent and palm kernel oil 80 per cent but is also esterified with glycerol. The reassuring fact in the consumption of palm oil as a source of dietary fat is that it does not pose any additional risks for coronary artery disease when consumed in moderate amounts of a healthy diet. The global production of palm oil was around 72.27 million metric tons in the marketing year 2020-1, decreasing from approximately 73.23 million metric tons in 2019-20. 90 per cent of the world’s palm oil is produced in Indonesia and Malaysia while the remaining 10 per cent is in Africa, India and China. It is the highest-yielding vegetable oil crop, which makes it very efficient and very popular. Less than half the land is required for cultivation as compared to other oil-producing crops (e.g. sunflower, soybean or rapeseed) to produce the same amount of oil. This makes palm oil the most affordable vegetable oil in the world. Palm oil has been used in food preparation for over 5,000 years. Currently, it also contributes significantly to the world’s oils and fats market. A carefully evolved research strategy of the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) focused on multi-pronged nutrition trials in animals and humans to prove the nutritional worthiness of palm oil and its products. Collaborative projects have been undertaken at biomedical centres of excellence abroad where palm oil was compared to the indigenous oils used in the various countries. The results have shown that palm oil is as good as the indigenous oils, in some instances even better in its cholesterolemic response as compared to the other oils and fats studied. The studies have yielded results that not only demonstrate the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products but also transitions in the science of edible oils and fatty acid effects on CHD. A natural coenzyme in palm oil, the widely prescribed Coenzyme Q10 is claimed to possess ten times greater antioxidant properties than Vitamin E. The results from these studies have helped palm oil to increase its market share and positioned it as a safe and nutritious oil. The worldwide focus on trans fats being unhealthy has also further opened the doors for palm oil as a healthy natural substitute. In the past, palm oil was attacked as “saturated” since it contains 44 per cent palmitic acid and five per cent stearic acid, and, thereby, allegedly raises blood cholesterol and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a sizeable and growing body of scientific evidence indicates that palm oil’s effect on blood cholesterol is relatively neutral when compared to other fats and oils. Palm oil raises plasma cholesterol only when an excess of dietary cholesterol is presented in the diet. Palm oil consists of different elements, which have positive and healthy nutrients, but some lobbies have always projected a negative campaign against it. Following is the researched version of those elements to create a better understanding of palm oil. A natural coenzyme in palm oil, the widely prescribed Coenzyme Q10 is claimed to possess ten times greater antioxidant properties than Vitamin E. Besides being a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger, Coenzyme Q10 also plays a vital role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and has been shown to exhibit membrane stabilising properties. It has been used in the treatment of many cardiovascular ailments and studies have also demonstrated its anticancer effects. Moreover, there is the presence of trace amounts of Squalene, an oxygen transmitter that can aid cardiovascular health. Phytosterols are a naturally occurring substance present in all plants is also a component of crude palm oil as ß-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. The main significance of palm phytosterols is their cholesterol-lowering properties. Research has also proven that they possess anticancer properties and enhance immune functions. Phospholipids form the main building blocks and are essential components of lipoproteins and biological membranes and they are essential for enhancing brain function, energy endurance, the structural integrity of cells as well as easing digestion and nutrient absorption. Moreover, palm oil is not only rich in SFAs, but also in carotenoids and tocotrienols that can counteract the potential negative effects of other components and provide several additional health bene?ts. The concept of sustainability has evolved over the years. Initially, the Brundtland report defined the concept of sustainability as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations.” The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) extends the concept of sustainability to the realm of food by defining sustainable diets as “those that generate reduced environmental impact and contribute to the food security and nutrition and to current and future generations to lead a healthy life. In addition, they protect and respect the biodiversity and ecosystems, are culturally acceptable, accessible, economically fair and affordable and nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy, and optimising natural and human resources.” On the same lines, the UN has established 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) for the period 2015–30. Goal 12 refers in particular to sustainable production and consumption, while goals 3 and 6 also have derivatives that affect food production and the relationship between food and health. The world population is expected to reach 8,600 million by the year 2030, and 9,800 million by 2050, which certainly poses a problem of sustainability in itself. The debate over palm oil is an example of the complexity of producing food for a world population that has quadrupled in the last 100 years (1920–2019) and continues to grow, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. Should there be any doubt of using palm oil or its variants in food production, it would be good to resort to further studies to clarify the contribution of palm oils to human health. In fact, within the limits of a balanced diet, the consumption of palm oil does not expose us to more health risks than the other fats usually employed in the food industries. Let’s break myths around this healthy and affordable vegetable oil with help of the conducive research and studies and adopt it in our daily lives to gain health benefits from its nutrients Writer is a correspondent, Daily Times and tweets at @maferozi).