Can Imran Khan’s goal to plant 10 billion trees change the future of Pakistan? In my opinion, planting 10 billion trees will not only benefit the environment through improved air quality, temperature reduction and wider climate change benefits; it will also be a step towards a green and healthy economic future. However, the critical question is how to achieve the transition to a comprehensive green economy while continuing to increase the income and standard of living of the people. In August 2018, the New Zealand Productivity Commission released a 620-page report on the low-emission economy. The report emphasized three key policies. Firstly, Substantial a fforestation that emphasizes the need for a high planting rate in rural and urban areas for the next 30 years. The PTI government’s ten-billion-tree plan reflects thinking similar to that of the Productivity Commission. However, Pakistan will need to continue this policy for the next three decades regardless of the change in government. Therefore, it is important to develop a civic culture of tree planting. Every member of the family should be encouraged to plant a tree each year, with the help of Schools and NGOs and local community groups. In Pakistan, there is a great potential for the planting of fruit trees. These trees would provide fruit to the local population, especially the poor, and also welcome birds inside the concrete jungle of urban areas. Green funds should be established to support nurseries to provide free plants to Schools and NGOs for plantation purposes. Second is, changes to the structure and methods of agricultural production. The Productivity Commission report emphasised changes in the way land and water consumed for agriculture is used. The Prime Minister’s Dam Fund Appeal shows a critical link between the water and agriculture sectors in Pakistan. In the long term, Diamer Basha and Mohmand dams will help to ensure a regular water supply for agriculture usage; there is an urgent need to focus on the demand management side of water to support agricultural transition. Pakistan needs investment in human capital to support creative agriculture practices that consumes less water, and improves healthy food production. In the last five years, Massey University, New Zealand (NZ) alone has produced more than 70 Pakistani PhD graduates, mainly in agriculture-related fields. However, it is time to utilise this human capital in moving to low-carbon agriculture production. By planning to plant 100 billion trees Imran Khan introduced a long-term perspective into politics and policy making. The new Pakistan Economic Advisory Council should focus on the long-term perspective and bring all stakeholders together to design the governance architecture, policies and targets that are committed to a green economic future Third is the transition to green fuel and materials which the last transformative policy the NZ Productivity Commission report has emphasised. The report recommended making a rapid and comprehensive switch from traditional vehicles to electric vehicles and devising new materials for building, and industrial processes. Transport is Pakistan’s largest sector and relies on imported fuel and the spending of foreign exchange. In the last two decades, motorisation has grown and with it the fuel importation bill. Electric vehicles provide a good opportunity to reduce foreign exchange, along with development of high quality public transport and cycling network. To encourage the uptake of electric vehicles, first, the government needs to invest in renewable energy to ensure a continuous supply of electricity for the vehicles. Second, it has to work closely with the automobile industry and the private sector to develop infrastructure for electric vehicles. Pakistani people responded to green fuel, especially CNG, quickly when the right pricing mechanism was adopted. In contrast to fuel, I have not seen any drastic change in material used for houses and commercial buildings in Pakistan. The building industry is relatively conservative, and the government is playing a minimal role in setting up the direction of construction industries. The government, in collaboration with the HEC, should provide funding to local universities to devise low-carbon material suitable for building in Pakistani cities. The PM Housing programme should adopt low-carbon building materials to develop momentum. Successful economies are flexible and responsive to new technologies and trends rather than insisting on old practices and laws. Pakistan has existing environmental laws, policies and assessments, but they have not helped in achieving a low-carbon economy. A shift towards a green economy needs a transformative change in transport and energy systems, land and water consumption and agricultural practices in Pakistan. Imran Khan has an opportunity to set up new institutions and policies and a regulatory framework which could lead to new production methods and trends in businesses and transform the economy, leading to a prosperous future. By planning to plant 100 billion trees Imran Khan introduced a long-term perspective into politics and policy making. The new Pakistan Economic Advisory Council should focus on the long-term perspective and bring all stakeholders together to design the governance architecture, policies and targets that are committed to a green economic future. Associate Professor Muhammad Imran teaches transport and urban planning at Massey University, New Zealand. He is the author of ‘Institutional barriers to sustainable urban transport in Pakistan’ published by Oxford University Press Published in Daily Times, September 30th 2018.