With 40,488,030, Pakistan was the 14th largest country in the world in 1955 (including East Pakistan). Even after the separation of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), Pakistan was the 10th largest population in 1975; after a 20-years interval. Within the next ten years, the country became the eighth largest nation in 1985. In another 15 years, it became the seventh world population in 2000. Within just five years, the country became the sixth biggest population. In 2018, Pakistan became the fifth largest nation on the planet. Pakistan’s population increased from 40 million in 1955 to 220 million in 72 years. It is expected that after a 30-years interval, the country would house 338 million people. Currently, the country holds the second-largest youth population in the world, after Yemen. This population may be even higher if the current unsound policy continues. It means the country has the highest young people. They can become the agent of change. Young capacitated persons can turn the economy into boom if they are capacitated, skilled or well-managed. However, this young population is unskilled, incapacitated, alienated, marginalised, stigmatised and a victim of the state policies or perpetrators against each other. The increasing population needs food, water, health, hygiene and of course, social security. They are on the roads. These roads are filled with vehicles. Thus, we see anarchy everywhere irrespective of cities or villages. This anarchy is a sign of a big disaster if not addressed properly. Has anyone from the power corridors (government), academia, Inteligencia or the civil society seriously bothered about this mega challenge of the population management in the recent past? The answer may be no. Even the relevant government bodies are unable to perceive it as a challenge. Thus, they are least bothered to address this big challenge. In the 1980s and early 1990s, there were several advertisements: “Bache du hi Ache” (only two kids are good.). This kind of advertisements has now disappeared. Therefore, the population growth rate has also risen. One may hardly find any kind of awareness campaign to address this acute social problem. Consequently, the county is on the verge of the “population nuclear explosion.”Overpopulation will bring several associated serious challenges. Illiteracy, unemployment, rising crime index, child abuse, child neglect, prostitution, drugs abuse, narcotics, forced migration and civil war, to name a few of those problems. Additionally, the young population would become alienated and isolated. They are even now hardly bothered about their or the country’s future. Nevertheless, they will become a burden on society. This will not earn any good repute in the club of the nations. Did any government bother about this kind of repute? I am highly doubtful. One may refer to two traditional approaches to address the overpopulation. One approach is to have strict control of overpopulation growth. China experienced a one-child policy. This policy brought hardly any desired results because it promoted a gender imbalance in the country. The preference for a son increased and the result was that the country faced an acute imbalance in the population. Another big challenge is that after 2060, the country population will have the highest old population and that may trigger up health, old-age benefits and care budget to manifolds.Pakistan holds the second-largest youth population in the world, after Yemen, which can become the agents of changeThe second approach is population management. This policy emphasis is on the training, engagement and empowerment of the population. This approach considers the population as a source rather than a burden. Providing them with education, skills; building capacities of the young people and engaging them in entrepreneurial skills would earn and feed the young and old population. This seems to be a feasible model. For this mode, the government must have to invest in human capital and capacity-building. The population management may trigger up the resources if state policies are constant for a couple of decades. These are not the only two approaches. Sociologist and demographers have also developed smart models, which can help address the issue of overpopulation. This is only possible if the government shows leadership, political will and perceives the population as a challenge. The population can become the source of development, prosperity and change the fate of the nation. For this, the state institution has to build their institutional capacity to perceive the population as a serious challenge.Overpopulation is the mother of all social problems. It would have been perceived 50 years ago to address the problem. However, we missed the window of opportunity. We are heading towards the phase of even bigger catastrophes if the population is not managed properly. I strongly urge the government to manage the population on war footings to avoid the anarchy in the country. Otherwise, civil war may be inevitable. The writer is the chairman of the Department of Sociology at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. He can be reached: firstname.lastname@example.org.