The Chief of Army Staff, urged the nation to be vigilant of fifth generation warfare. It is now a reality, that the journey from conceptualization and theory is already complete. The concept of warfare is not new or unique, it has always been used in history. Difference now is the tools of implementation used. New tools have the capability and capacity of mass destruction swiftly and diligently. Large-scale data interpretations, social media trails, misinformation through cyber space, attacks on installation etc. are prime tools of fifth generation warfare. Introduction of new tools enforced a new definition of security, actors, and stakeholders. A person sitting in a remote area with appropriate tools of use is as dangerous as a terrorist armed with weapons or even more. The concept of state wars has transformed to the lone warrior or individual threat, which can destroy the defence lines of any country. The threat is so comprehensive and destructive that even inventors of it have become the victims of it. The US has been crying for the last 2 years that its elections have been interfered in, by Russia and has negative implications on the results. It is alarming in the context of preparedness and availability of cyber security infrastructure of the US. It has most sophisticated instruments and well trained brains and hands which can counter interference. But it was too late to deter the efforts of interference. European countries in recent elections were concerned about the foreign interference through cyber space. They tried to put all the barriers but with limited success. The right-wing used the social media for their promotion and nobody knows how many were from other nationalities. The scenario is even more oblique for developing countries with limited capacity, skills, infrastructure and capabilities in the field of cyber space. They do not have control over the networks and servers, as they are out of their access. The world has already witnessed the havoc of social media, which it can play in the destabilizing or changing of governments. The Arab spring is a prominent example and its results are being quoted frequently even till today. Critical infrastructure connected with cyber space is open to attacks, all the time. Developed countries are putting reasonable resources to build walls for the protection of their data and critical infrastructure but still their vulnerabilities exist. Cyber space is the main tool of fifth generation warfare. It has introduced two-tier threats and opportunities for militaries across the world. Militaries have to defend boundaries on the fronts of physical borders and digital frontiers. Military establishments started to focus on FGW by diverting resources and investments. The concept of “Conquering without Fight in Field” has emerged more applicable and desired in today’s world. There are clear indications that militaries have started to redefine their strategies and ways of war. Apart from the cyber space, fifth generation warfare tactics re multiple and can be used simultaneously or in a stepwise manner. Tactics are built to pin point and target national vulnerable areas like national assets, society, economic interests, reputation and governance areas etc. Fault lines are identified and are targeted like sectarian divide, ethnicity conflicts, entrance to security software, hijacking of websites of important ministries and institutes etc. These fault lines exploited according to their needs and are designed to achieve the desired objectives of chaos, confusion, physical damage etc. For example in Syria, ethnic and sectarian divide was used to create chaos and war. Pakistan is victim of hybrid warfare on multiple fronts like the digital space, terrorist events, ethnic conflicts, sectarian violence etc. Although it has roots in the non-liner concept of warfare but it applies a very systematic and well-coordinated approach and tools. Therefore, it is important to develop a systematic approach to counter or combat. Traditional methods of war and its tools have been changed. Physical force, actions, attacks or counter attacks, have been overshadowed by non-physical instruments. The fundamental lesson is that “you cannot build walls” and “you have to be in battle field for 24 hours” In 2017 the Multinational Capability Development Campaign (MCDC), program tried to develop a comprehendible framework based on the assumption of a few basic elements of hybrid threats. According to reports, the basic difference is the instruction of new elements in conventional warfare. Traditional methods of war and its tools have been changed. Physical force, actions, attacks or counter attacks, have been overshadowed by non-physical instruments. The fundamental lesson is that “you cannot build walls” and “you have to be in battle field for 24 hours”. Now you do not need to send the Trojan horse to the enemy’s fort. You have to find the Trojan horse in the enemy land. It is a big shift from past strategies and most importantly its affect is many folds. Introduction of fifth generation warfare and change in strategy, tools and tactics demands a new “security agreement” between the state and its people. Now state organs will have to redefine the role of stakeholders. For example, a well-trained, equipped and enthusiastic army cannot entertain the enemy in the field of economic warfare. Economic data can be interpreted according to the will of the enemy and it can be disseminated quickly to create bad blood amongst a nation. The state needs well trained economists to counter the attack. For political maneuvering you need political minds. For diplomatic encounters you need well trained diplomates. To counter the insurgency of non-government agencies and organizations you need empowered local non-government agencies and organization. War imposed through media can only defeated by engaging domestic media to ensure people are not brainwashed. All these aspects clearly spell out one strategy that the state has to build on with its citizens, organizations, actors and drivers. Therefore, the state must start the process to redefine the concept of stakeholders and expand it according to need. Otherwise, it would be beyond the capacity of state to tackle the fifth generation warfare in future. The writer is Director Research Uptake and Business Development, Sustainable Development Policy Institute Published in Daily Times, December 13th 2018.