KARACHI: Mango is called “The King of Fruit,” one of the most nutritious, not to mention delicious as Pakistani Mangoes are high in fiber, low in calories and contain a small amount of carbohydrates, calcium, iron, potassium and a little protein and are rich in vitamins, A, B and C containing other antioxidant vitamins as well. It is one of the sweetest fruit in the world.Sub-continent is the habitat of mango, where it has been growing for over 4,000 years and subsequently has spread to tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mangoes have been produced in Pakistan for well over two thousand years, and the country is now the forth largest producer in the worldAmong 1595 varieties of mangoes known, only 25 to 30 are being grown on commercial scale. The varieties of the king of the fruit are producing in Pakistan include Chaunsa, Sindhri, Langra, Dasehri, Anwar Ratool, Saroli, Samar Bahisht, Toota Pari, Fajri, Neelum, Alphanso, Almas, Sanwal, Surkha, Sunera and Desi. Chaunsa mango of Pakistan is one of the worlds’ top available varieties. Chaunsa is a variety of mango grown in different parts of the world, but originally from Rahim Yar Khan and Multan in Punjab. It is an exceptionally sweet mango with a wonderful fragrance and delicious soft, succulent flesh with only the minimum of fibre. it is not a fruit of beauty, usually being of a pale, matt yellow appearance, but one inside the thin peel it is a delight. Chausna has quite a thick stone and the flesh is a fairly light yellow in colour. It’s origin from Rahim Yar Khan and Multan Punjab.Sindhri is a Leading variety of Sindh. Its shape ovalish long, size large, skin colour lemon yellow when ripe, pulp colour yellowish cadium, texture fine and firm fibreless, stone medium sized, flavour pleasantly aromatic and taste sweet. It’s origin from Mir Pur Khas. It is also the national fruit of Pakistan because this variety is top in Pakistan. Sindhri is very famous mango variety from Pakistan and Among the Best Mangoes of the World. Langra mango’s flesh is fiber-less, yellowish brown in color and has a strong smell when it ripens. As compared to other varieties of mangoes, it is naturally verysugary and soft. The size of the seed is small and oval in shape. Langra maintains it green color after it gets ripe, while other mangoes change into yellow-reddish color.Dasheri mango is long and oval shaped, with a light green or yellow-green skin when mature, becoming golden yellow when ripe. Dasheri mangoes have a fiberless, peach-colored flesh with a medium-sized stone. The flavor is very sweet and aromatic. Dasheri mangoes are high in vitamin C and fiber. Mangoes naturally contain enzymes beneficial for digestion as well as many other valuable vitamins and minerals.Anwar Ratool, mango is said to have been cultivated by Anwar-ul-haq in a garden in the Ratol area in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. But now it is extensively grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Anwar Ratole Mango is recognized for its rich flavor all around the globe. Owing to its superb taste it has gained most popularity in recent times. It has an exceptional sweet taste that makes the tasting buds so refreshing. It is the best variety of mango in terms of sweetness and flavor that distinguishes it from all the other mangoes. Its peak season starts from the mid of July and ends in August. This mango is fully loaded with nutritional values that provides sufficient amount of energy. It is extensively grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Its peak season is from mid-July to August.Saroli, A popular variety in North India and Pakistan. It’s one of the first mangoes to appear during the season. Sweet green mangos are aromatic and rich in fragrance. It is a rich source of vitamins, potassium, phenol and iron, and looks so tempting and tastes so yummy.Samar Bahisht is a local selection; a change seedling in Fajri plantation in village “Chaunsa” by a farmer Mir Khan Bahadur Altaf Rasul very popular late season mango. It is planted in Multan, Mirpurkhas, Tarnab (DIK) Foliage medium dense, shape ovate to oval oblong, color light green at maturity, yellow at ripening, sinus weak, conspicuous, flesh pale yellow,medium juicy, sweet, flavor rich, distinctive, aromatic, fibers medium.The Totapuri mango is a cultivar that is widely grown in South India and is partially cultivated in Sri Lanka. … Totapuri is one of the main cultivars grown in India for mango pulp, along with ‘Alphonso’ and ‘Kesar’. The tree is medium size with greenish yellow fruits.Fajri , it is origion from Behar, it was created by a woman the name is after her, the skin is pale and the pulp is fibreless, Fajri is also known for its sweet taste and exceptional texture.Neelam mango grows in many areas of Pakistan. The more famous Pakistani varieties are from the Sindh region, it is also very famous in Indian mangoes varieties. Noticeable with its distinctive lovely fragrance, Neelam is available throughout the season but the tastiest ones come in only by June with the monsoons. They are tiny in comparison to other varieties and have yellow-orange skin.Alphanso, it is very sweet and different from others. This type of mango does not grow out of seed. It is planted through artificial propagation. It is a mid season variety and is harvested in July.Desi mangoes, Since indigenous desi mangoes varieties are not as popular as the commercial ones like Chaunsa and Dussehri, growers are fast switching over to economically profitable varieties. This does not bode well for already threatened ‘desi’ varieties. It’s the cheapest mango and hardly known in the market, even though some of them are much easier to grow as compared to the commercial varieties. Most of the times, they grow out of discarded seeds. But, most of these mangoes remain confined to orchards as they are not popular.The main mango growing districts in the Punjab province are Multan, Bahawalpur, Muzzaffargarh and Rahim yar Khan. In the province of Sindh it mainly grows in Mir pur Khas, Hyderabad and Thatta and in the province of NWFP D.I Khan, Peshawar and Mardan are known for it.Mango is the second most exported fruit from Pakistan mainly to Middle East, Iran, Germany, Japan, China and Hong Kong making its valuable contribution as an important foreign currency earning fruit crop. Pakistan is now the 4th largest producer in the world behind India, China, Mexico and Thailand.Mango is the second largest fruit crop of Pakistan. At present it has grown on an area of 170.1000 thousand hectares with production of 1.8 million tones. Only in Punjab province, there are mango gardens on 271,700 acres of land and they are producing 70% mangoes of total production, Sindh produces 24% and KPK produces 1% of total production, which seems to be reducing this year, the second major fruit crop of Pakistan produces 8.5% of world’s Mango. The climate earlier than that of Punjab has given the province the privilege to grow early varieties of Mango.According to Waheed Ahmed Chairman All Pakistan Fruit and Vegetable Exporters Importers and Merchant Association (PFVA) that in the past few years the production of quality Mangoes is on the decrease due to global warming and government is not taking any imitative to tackle the problem.Moreover he told that Pakistan’s horticulture has been badly hit by global warming and extreme weather, and a major casualty this season has been the Mango crop in Punjab. Mango output has also been affected in south Punjab where fruit plants are in Rahim Yar Khan, Muzaffargarh and Multan. However, the crop in Sindh is comparatively less affected and only a 10% reduction is likely in its share of 35% in the country’s total Mango output. In southern Sindh, Mango production has not been a viable business over the years due to harsh weather.According to a senior official of the Agriculture Department, this year March surprisingly turned to be cold like January or February. Later the dust storms and sudden increase in temperature affected the fruit. “Farmers are worried, as they will hardly be able to recover cost,” he feared.In addition he told that the Soil and climatic environment in Pakistan support Mango production in terms of capitulate and quality. Number of factors contributes towards low production of Mango. Unchecked use of unhealthy seeds forming diseased seedlings, Insect attack (Mango mealy bug, fruit fly, Mango weevil, scales, mites), improper management practices during budding or grafting, time of irrigation, pruning and time of application of fertilizers are contributing substantially to the downfall of the industry. Adding to the ever increasing problems are the post harvest losses contributing almost 40% to 50%.. Pakistan is riding on the wave of taking more than 2 lakh mangoes to different parts of the world this year due to negligence mangoes shipment have been cancelled last year.Since Pakistan’s last year mango production was reported to be 1.7 million tonne with two-third and one-third share of Punjab and Sindh respectively.In addition to major crop losses, bad luck awaited Pakistan at another front. A Pakistani Mango consignment of 4.5 tonnes was rejected last year in Amsterdam after discovering fruit fly in the fruit, making the first such instance last year. The EU had already made it clear last year that more than five rejections will mean a complete ban on Pakistani fruit and vegetable imports in the European markets.To promote and introduce mangoes Three-day annual mango show is arranged by Agriculture Department in RAHIM YAR KHAN and besides this National Mango and Summer Fruits Festival is also arranged every year at the Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Exhibition Hall in Mirpurkhas.Approximately 1% of Mango production is utilized for processing for juice, nectars, preserves, fruit leather, dried fruit slices, frozen pulp, and as flavoring for baked goods, ice cream, yoghurt, etc.