The Objectives Resolution acting as a precursor to the Islamisation of Pakistan continues to remain a matter of intense debate in our society today. Debates surrounding the Objectives Resolution when it was presented in the Assembly present a window into the minds of the people who framed the Resolution and subsequently the first Constitution of Pakistan. In part one of this article, snippets from the opening speech by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and a brief background to the Objectives Resolution were presented. Following is a concise account of the reaction that the Resolution garnered among members of the Assembly. Bhupendra Kumar Datta said that if this Resolution is approved, it will open the door to political adventurers such as Yuan Shikai (Chinese General who attempted restoration of monarchy while crowning himself the Emperor) or Bacha Sakka (Habibullah Kalakani, an Afghan warrior who briefly became the King). He warned against the deification of the state, citing Nazi Germany as an example. He delineated the core problem of mixing religion and politics as: “All our religious scriptures are subject to different interpretations by different theologians and divines. It, therefore, becomes a difficult matter when you speak of those ‘limits’ prescribed by the Almighty.” Prem Hari Barma said: “The Objectives Resolution is not meant only for Muslims but it is intended for non-Muslims of Pakistan also. If the Honourable Mover has in his mind any limitations stated in the Holy Quran or any other scripture of Islam, then those limitations are known to Muslims only”. Kamini Kumar Datta said: “Though supreme sovereignty rests in God, God doesn’t rule directly. The people have to exercise the right of sovereignty through its chosen representatives.” He demanded an explanation of the concept of Zimmis and the status of minorities in Pakistan. Other members of the assembly suggested different amendments to the Resolution. Dr Ishtiaq Husain Qureshi, Pakistan’s first Education Minister, defended the Resolution. He rejected the theory that faith and politics belong to different spheres of life. The Objectives Resolution acting as a precursor to the Islamisation of Pakistan continues to remain a matter of intense debate A debate over the definition of the word ‘secular’ is still going on in our society. During the debates, Qureshi shed some light on this issue: “If the world ‘secular’ means that ideals of Islam, that the fundamental principles of religion, that the ethical outlook which religion inculcates in our people should not be observed, then I am afraid, Sir, that kind of secular democracy can never be acceptable to us in Pakistan”. Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani, a cleric with a dubious past, said in his speech: “It should not dismay us if we are branded as conservatives and reactionaries. We should try to unravel the tangled skein in the spirit of a seeker after truth”. He went on to proclaim that “the Islamic state was the first political institution in the world which abolished imperialism and installed a caliph elected by the people in place of a king”. He further elaborated upon his idea of an Islamic state as “a state which is run on the exalted and excellent principles of Islam. People who do not subscribe to those ideas may have a place in the administrative machinery of the state but they cannot be entrusted with the responsibility of framing the general policy of the state or dealing with matters vital to its safety and integrity”. On the issue of minorities, he said: “Enjoyment of rights by non-Muslims doesn’t depend upon the sweet will of the Muslim majority; it is a duty imposed on the latter by God to protect the rights of minorities and they can, under no pretext whatsoever, swerve from the path of their duty”. Mr Birat Chandra Mandal warned the audience that “We are going to commit a serious blunder, a very serious blunder, and we are going to do something which is unprecedented in the history of the world. The whole world is gradually progressing and all the civilised countries in the world are progressing.” Mian Iftikharuddin voiced protest against the Resolution and exclaimed that ‘the words used in this Resolution do not mean anything. This Resolution is not the product of the [Muslim] league party in this house’ but he was silenced by the Speaker. Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar then spoke and mentioned that dictatorship is not possible in an Islamic system. Mr Zafrulla Khan, Pakistan’s first Foreign Minister, delivered a passionate address, peppered with quotes from the Quran, in favour of the Objectives Resolution. The penultimate speech was delivered by leader of the opposition, Sri Chandra Chattopadhyaya, who warned the ruling party in no uncertain terms what the future held for the country if the Resolution was passed without amendments. His advice fell on deaf ears and all amendments were rejected by the Assembly. Pakistan officially took its first step towards becoming an ‘Islamic state’ on 12th March, 1949. The rest is history. The writer is a freelance columnist based in Lahore. He writes on History, International Relations and Culture Published in Daily Times, July 6th , 2017.